Residency will have an important impact on your tax obligations. Different jurisdictions have their own tax residency rules, as can be seen from the summaries listed below. Accordingly, it is possible to be considered tax resident in more than one country in any tax year.

Many countries use the "183 day" rule to decide residency. However, there are also other items to consider that may also make you tax resident even if you keep within the "183 day" rule.

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Click on the examples below of the differing tax residency rules:

  • Monaco

    No income tax is levied in Monaco. Individuals are able to apply for a tax residency certificate if they remain in Monaco over 183 days in a tax year.

  • United Kingdom (UK)

    Since April 2013, the UK introduced its Statutory Residence Test (SRT) to assess whether you are a UK resident for tax purposes in a particular tax year. The overriding test is that you will be considered UK resident if you stay in the UK for 183 days or more in the tax year.

  • United States (USA)

    US income taxation, based on residence, applies to US citizens and US residents. US residence is determined under two test as follows:

    a) Substantial presence test

    The substantial presence test calculates residence based on the number of days an individual spends in the US over a three-year period. An individual who is in the US 183 or more days in the current year or for 183 days or more during a three-year period calculated using a weighted average formula is a US resident for income tax purposes.

    b) Green card test

    The green card test is based on an individual's US immigration status and treats a person as a resident for US income tax purposes if the individual obtains lawful permanent resident status (eg by holding a green card). A person who is not a US citizen and fails the substantial presence test and the green card test is considered a US non-resident alien for income tax purposes.

  • Austria

    Individuals are considered ordinary residents in Austria if:

    - They live in Austria for more than six months during the year (habitual place of abode) or

    - They have a residence available in Austria

  • Cyprus

    An individual is considered to be a tax resident of Cyprus if he or she is present in Cyprus for, in aggregate, more than 183 days in any calendar year.

  • Germany

    Individuals with a habitual place of abode in Germany, are deemed to be tax resident if the individual's stay in Germany exceeds six months. Such individuals will be deemed resident for the entire period of their stay in Germany, including any brief interruptions.

  • India

    Individuals are treated as resident in a year if present in India:

    - For 182 days during the year (1 April to 31 March) or

    - For 60 days during the year and 365 days during the preceding four years

  • Ireland

    Individuals are treated as tax resident for a tax year if present in Ireland for:

    - A total of 183 days or more in the tax year or

    - A total of 280 days or more in aggregate in the current tax year and the preceding year

  • Italy

    Individuals are considered to be a resident in Italy for tax purposes if they are present for more than 183 days in any calendar year and meet at least one of the following conditions:

    a) Where an individual is registered under the Italian Office of the Resident Population.

    b) Where an individual has established their place of business and family life in Italy.

    c) Where the individual has their habitual abode.

  • New Zealand

    Individuals are considered tax resident in New Zealand if they meet either of the following conditions:

    a) They have a permanent place of abode in New Zealand, regardless of whether they also have a permanent place of abode in another country; or

    b) They are physically present in New Zealand for more than 183 days in any 12-month period.

  • Poland

    Individuals are considered tax resident in Poland if either of the following are met:

    a) The individual has the centre of their personal or economic interests in Poland or

    b) Stay in Poland for a period exceeding 183 days in a given tax year.

Our services include:


Review of your current residency status.

Review of potential and existing tax obligations.

Documenting and updating your tax residency status.

Advising of changes in tax legislation.

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